Arvei Pesachim #13: 105a -105b
Yeshivat Har Etzion
Gemorah Arvei Pesachim
SHIUR #13: 105a -b
by Rav Yair Kahn
Mekadesh ve-Holekh Kol ha-Yom Kulo
Kiddush is supposed to be recited at the commencement of the Shabbat. This is called "kiddush ha-yom." If one did not recite it at night, it can be recited during the Shabbat day. The Tur (O.C. 271) quotes the opinion of Rav Amram Gaon, that this option is limited to one who omitted kiddush at night inadvertently. The Rambam (Hilkhot Shabbat 29:4), on the other hand, rules that the option of kiddush in the day applies even where one intentionally refrained from reciting that kiddush.
The Bach, in his comments on the Tur, explains that Rav Amram Gaon and the Rambam are actually debating the very applicability of kiddush ha-yom to the daytime. The Rambam considers the entire day within the time frame of kiddush ha-yom. Therefore, even though there is a clear-cut preference that this kiddush be recited immediately at the beginning of Shabbat, the time of the mitzva includes the entire day. Hence, it is irrelevant whether his initial omission of the kiddush was intentional or not.
Rav Amram Gaon, however, argues that the basic time frame of the mitzva of kiddush is Friday night. The option of reciting kiddush ha-yom during the day is based on the concept of "tashlumin" - a second chance to "repay a debt" granted in certain cases where one was unable to perform a mitzva. For instance, if one was initially unable to recite the shacharit prayer at the proper time in the morning, he is given the opportunity to recite mincha twice. This second tefila is not shacharit, which is only in the morning, but is a compensatory prayer in place of the missing shacharit. This option applies only where the tefilla was not omitted intentionally (see O.C. 108:1). Similarly, Rav Amram Gaon maintains that the opportunity to make up for the missed kiddush at night was not awarded where the initial omission was intentional.
Our gemara compares the opportunity of kiddush ha-yom during the day with the possibility of havdala after motzaei Shabbat. Therefore, it would appear that these two basic possibilities should apply to havdala as well. According to the Rambam, this indicates an extension of the basic time frame of havdala, while Rav Amram Gaon would treat this as tashlumin. (This will be discussed in greater detail on 106a.) However, see O.C 271:8 and 299:6. What discrepancy exists in the ruling of the Mechaber? How can this discrepancy be resolved?
Chaviva Mitzva Be-shaita
The gemara applies this rule to explain why the halakha demands kiddush on Friday night rather than the legitimate option of kiddush on Shabbat during the daytime, even in a situation where this will come at the expense of "kavod ha-yom". The use of the term "chaviva mitzva be-shaita" ("a mitzva is preferred in its proper time"),as opposed to "zerizim makdimim le-mitzvot" ("the diligent perform mitzvot early"), indicates that we are not dealing merely with the preference of performing mitzvot as soon as possible. Rather, the issue is a clear-cut endorsement of the PROPER time, the "zeman ha-mitzva," as opposed to performing a mitzva "she-lo b'zmano". This understanding is supported by a parallel sugya in Menakhot (72a) which applies this rule with the opposite result - demanding the delay the performance of a mitzva until the proper "zeman ha-mitzva" arrives.
Based on this analysis, we can conclude that Friday night is defined as the zeman ha-mitzva of "kiddush ha-yom". This is true even if we consider the day of Shabbat as within the basic time frame of "kiddush ha-yom", as we explained above according to the Rambam. Nevertheless, the preference of Friday night is not simply to be expedient. Rather it is qualitatively defined as the primary zeman ha-mitzva. [See 68b where the gemara applies this rule to "haktarat eimurim" (burning of the sacrificial offerings) during the day. Even though the option of "haktarat eimurim" throughout the night is not based on "tashlumim", the achronim note that the basic time of the mitzva is the day.] In other words, even within the proper time for a mitzva, there can be a preferred time and a secondary time (b'diavad).
However, the application to the case of havdala is difficult from this perspective. After all, the primary zeman for havdala is all motzaei Shabbat (as opposed to the option of Sunday or till Tuesday evening). Nevertheless, the gemara applies the principle of "mitzva be-shaita" to the delay of havdala after a meal even within motzaei Shabbat itself.
Apparently, zeman ha-mitzva is not only a function of clock-time. Actions or events can also effect proper zeman ha-mitzva. In the case of havdala, the proper time includes the requirement that it be before one eats. Even if recited on motzaei Shabbat itself, if one delays havdala to after eating, he has compromised the basic zeman demanded for havdala. This is due to the role of havdala as signaling the separation between oneg Shabbat, expressed through se'udot Shabbat, and the ordinary mundane meals of the rest of the week. Therefore, the gemara initially considers endorsing havdala after eating as ignoring the rule of "chaviva mitzva be-shaita". (The maskana of the gemara is that the value of delaying the end of Shabbat outweighs the necessity to recite havdala before eating, so that mitzva be-shaita is not contradicted by the delay until after the meal. The later hour is also "be-shaita").
Sources for next week:
1. 105b "Tanya... achavita pegimta (106a)."
2. Tosafot s.v. "Shma mina ha-mavdil."
3. Tosafot s.v. "Shma mina berakha," Tosafot Berakhot 37a s.v. "Natan".
4. Rashbam 106a s.v. "Kapid", Rambam Hilkhot Shabbat 29:16, Maggid Mishna, Hagahot Maimoniot, Rosh siman 14 "ve-beyerushalmi ..."
1. Why is it necessary to recite havdala, both in tefilla as well as over wine?
2. Tosafot suggest that a "kos shel berakha" is only needed when there is a "zimmun" for birkat ha-mazon. What is the conceptual reason for this limitation?
3. How can one restore a "kos pagum" to its original state as eligible for a "kos shel berakha"?
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