Erev Pesach that Falls out on Shabbat - Part 4: Assorted Halakhot
Derasha for Shabbat ha-Gadol: The Maharil (beginning of Hilkhot Pesach) writes that when Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, the Shabbat ha-Gadol derasha should be delivered on the previous Shabbat (this year, Parashat Metzora), in order to allow people to apply the laws that they had learned in the derasha. The Mishna Berura issues a similar ruling (429:2).
Hag'alat kelim: When Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, one is permitted to kasher utensils for Pesach all day Friday, for chametz is permitted all day long (Kovetz mi-Beit Levi, 5).
False teeth: There are those who suffice with a thorough cleaning (Chazon Ish, Orchot Rabbenu, II). Those who require hag'ala disagree whether one must perform hag'ala before Shabbat, and then refrain from eating chametz on Shabbat, or one can perform hag'ala on Shabbat (those who are stringent should perform hag'ala before Shabbat, and then on Shabbat eat only matza ashira or cooked matza).
Preparations for the Seder: Ideally, all the preparations should be made before Shabbat: checking the lettuce for insects (bedi'eved, one may check the lettuce on Yom Tov (Shemirat Shabbat Kehilkhata 3, 36); roasting the shankbone (Mishna Berura 473, no. 32); grinding the ingredients for the charoset (if he did not grind them before Shabbat, he may do so on Yom Tov in a slightly different manner than usual [Rema 504:1]; and he may use a grater). One may mix the charoset on Yom Tov, for kneading is permitted on Yom Tov, when the taste of the food will be adversely effected if it is kneaded before Yom Tov. It is preferable to prepare the salt water before Shabbat (Chayyei Adam 130:1, because the process is similar to tanning hides, but if he did not prepare it in advance, he may do so on Yom Tov). The Shabbat clock should be set for the night of the seder before Shabbat. If he forgot to do so, he may adjust the clock so that it turns the lights off at a later hour, appropriate for the night of the seder (see Shemirat Shabbat Kehilkhata 13, 26-27).
Sleeping on this Shabbat. A person is permitted to sleep on this Shabbat, even if he does so in order to be awake at the seder, but he should not state this explicitly (see Mishna Berura 290, no. 3; Responsa Az Nidbaru, IV, no. 46, 2, says that he is permitted to state this explicitly, for it is for the sake of a mitzva that does not involve a forbidden labor).
Setting aside challa, terumot, and ma'asrot. It is important to remember to set aside terumot and ma'asrot before Shabbat. So too, in the years 5765 and 5768, it is important to remember to perform bi'ur ma'asrot: to set aside terumot and ma'asrot from those fruits and vegetables that were not yet tithed, to give ma'aser rishon to a Levite and ma'aser ani to a pauper (the general custom is to give these gifts only when setting aside ma'asrot from certain tevel), to redeem ma'aser sheni, and to redeem the coin used for the redemption of ma'aser sheni on to a peruta and bury it (or onto sugar that he will dispose of in the sink). There are those who are accustomed to recite viddui ma'asrot at mincha time on the last day of Pesach.
Candles. If the Yom Tov candles will not stand without securing them by melting their bottoms, this should be done before Shabbat (Mishna Berura 514:18). Today many women light short candles in glass receptacles, which do not have this problem. The question arises, however, whether one is permitted to remove the small metal tab that remains in the glass after the candle has burned down, for it would appear to be muktze (some of these candles have a special indentation on the bottom that fits over the metal tab). According to Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, moving the metal tab is permitted, because this is needed for the sake of eating (cited in Kovetz Mevakshei Torah).
It goes without saying that a woman may not light the Yom Tov candles until Shabbat is over, and she says "Barukh ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-kodesh" (or she recites the vatodi'einu blessing in ma'ariv). One should remember to light a yahrzeit candle before Shabbat, from which to light the Yom Tov candles or a cooking flame. A woman who lights candles and recites the shehecheyanu blessing should skip the shehekheyanu blessing recited at the seder before drinking the first cup of wine.
Preparing for Yom Tov on Shabbat. Preparing for Yom Tov on Shabbat is forbidden. Therefore, one may not set the table for the seder until Shabbat is over. One is, however, permitted to clean and tidy up anything that is beneficial for Shabbat itself. One may also not heat up food for the seder until Shabbat is over (and after reciting "Barukh ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-kodesh).
Shabbat prayers. Those who are generally lenient about starting Yom Tov early should be stringent when Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, because it is not right to start Yom Tov when it is still Shabbat. (See Levush 488; Maharil, Hilkhot Pesach, Tefila; in a case of dire need, e.g., for a sick or elderly person, one may be lenient – see Shemirat Shabbat Kehilkhata, II, 47, note 111).
One should get up early for shacharit on Shabbat (Roke'ach 267; Maharil, Hilkhot Shabbat ha-Gadol; Mishna Berura 444:4), in order to finish eating by the end of the fourth hour, destroy the leftover chametz, and nullify it by the end of the fifth hour. For this reason, we do not call extra people to the Torah; "and they should not draw out the service, so that they should have time and not come to a mishap" (Mishna Berura 444, no. 4). The Ben Ish Chai (1, 96) points out, however, that one should be careful not to rush through the prayer service.
Haftara. For the haftara, we read "Ve'orva la-Shem," as in an ordinary year (Rav Tykocinski's Lu'ach Eretz Yisrael). Those who follow the customs of the Vilna Gaon read the regular haftara for the parasha.
Bittul chametz. It is important to remember to nullify the chametz after one has finished eating.
On Motza'ei Shabbat (the night of Yom Tov) we add in ma'ariv the vatodi'einu blessing (Berakhot 33b; Shulchan Arukh 491:2). Vihi no'am and ve'ata kadosh are not recited.
Kiddush at the seder. The order of the blessings is "Yaknehaz" (Pesachim 103a; Shulchan Arukh 473:1). That is, yayin (bore peri ha-gefen), kiddush (asher bachar banu), ner (bore me'orei ha-eish), havdala (ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-chol… barukh ata ha-Shem ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-kodesh), zeman (shehecheyanu).
The ”asher ga'alanu" berakha: According to the Gemara in Pesachim (116b), the "asher ga'alanu" berakha reads: "And we shall partake of the Pesach offerings and the sacrifices." Tosafot (ad loc., s.v. venomar), the Mordekhai and other Rishonim write that the berakha should actually read: "And we shall partake of the sacrifices and the Pesach offerings," because we first eat the chagiga offering (= sacrifice) and only afterwards the Pesach offering, so that the latter should be eaten only after we are satiated.
When Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, the Mahari Weil (193) writes that we say "of the Pesach offerings and the sacrifices," because the chagiga offering is not brought on Shabbat. The Shulchan Arukh ha-Rav (473:49) explains that the words "of the sacrifices" refer to the chagiga offering which will be brought the next day on Pesach. The Magen Avraham and the Taz rule in accordance with this position. Responsa Kenesset Yechezkel (no. 23) writes, however, that even when Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, one should say "of the sacrifices and the Pesach offerings" in the usual manner, because these words refer not to this year, but to the following year when Erev Pesach will not fall out on Shabbat. He understands that even according to Mahari Weil, the text of the berakha is changed only in the year before the year in which Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat.
In practice, the Mishna Berura (473, no. 72) writes that when Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, the text of the berakha is changed to "of the Pesach offerings and the sacrifices." On the other hand, in the Sha'ar ha-Tziyun (no. 80) he cites the Kenesset Yechezkel, without explicitly deciding between the two opinions.
According to Rav Ya'akov Emden, the reading of the berakha is not changed. Many Acharonim, however, write that it is changed: the Magen Avraham and the Taz, cited above; Rav Kook (Olat Ra'aya); and Rav Tykocinski's Lu'ach Eretz Israel; and others.
Practical Suggestions Regarding the Shabbat meals
I have presented several options regarding how to conduct the Shabbat meals when Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat. Now I wish to present what in practical terms seems to me to be the most convenient alternative (anyone who wishes to do so, is free to chose one of the other options proposed above):
Today, when attractive disposable dishes are readily available, it is recommended that one do as follows: The Shabbat meals should be cooked in Pesach utensils or in disposable baking tins (in any event, it is preferable to transfer the food to disposable tins, because the pots cannot be washed on Shabbat).
Friday night meal: Pita or some other type of bread that does not leave crumbs should be used, and the meal should be eaten on disposable dishes. If there is concern that children will walk about the house with chametz, one may eat bread in the size of an egg at the beginning of the meal, and then remove the bread from the table. (For birkat ha-mazon, it is preferable that a small amount of bread be returned to the table [even if it is brought out in a plastic bag].)
Shabbat morning meal: One should get up early. One should finish eating chametz by 9:52 (Jerusalem time). It is, therefore, recommended that one eat a light breakfast with bread, followed by birkat ha-mazon (like a "kiddush," only with bread).
Any bread that is left over (it is a good idea not to buy too much bread this Shabbat) should be doused with some agent that renders it totally inedible (e.g., bleach or dishwashing soap), and then thrown into a garbage bin outside (or alternatively, crumbled and flushed down the toilet). This should be completed by 11:15 (Jerusalem time).
Se'uda shelishit: The third Shabbat meal should be eaten after 13:10. This meal can be a full lunch, and in this way, people will not arrive at the seder overly hungry. Bread may not be eaten at this meal (for further details, see Shulchan Arukh 444:1).
The advantage of this option: There is no pressure at the morning meal – the meal is a light breakfast with bread, that does not take a long time. An additional advantage: If the main meal of the day is eaten immediately upon coming home from shul in the morning, people will be very hungry by the time of the seder. According to our suggestion, the main meal is eaten in the afternoon, and people will not arrive at the seder famished (on the other hand, they will not be satiated, and they can still eat the matza with an appetite).
A Concise Practical Guide to the Laws of
Erev Pesach that falls out on Shabbat
|TOPIC||THE LAW IN BRIEF|
|The Shabbat ha-Gadol derasha||The Shabbat ha-Gadol derasha is delivered a week early.|
|Vihi no'am||Vihi no'am is recited on the Motza'ei Shabbat before Erev Pesach.|
|Ta'anit Bekhorot||Firstborns fast on Thursday. A firstborn may practice leniency (perhaps even more so than in an ordinary year) and exempt himself from the fast by participating in a se'udat mitzva.|
|Bedikat chametz||Bedikat chametz is performed on Thursday night, and the bittul formula is recited immediately afterwards as in an ordinary year.|
|Bi'ur chametz||Bi'ur chametz is performed on Friday morning before the end of the fifth hour. The bittul formula ordinarily recited after the bi'ur is not recited. (If, however, a person has no intention of eating any more chametz, he may recite the bittul at this time.)|
|Working on Friday||Working on Friday is permitted.|
|Hag'alat kelim||Hag'alat kelim may be performed all day Friday. False teeth should be cleaned on Shabbat. Some people pour boiling water over them on Shabbat. Others place them in boiling water before Shabbat, and on Shabbat eat only matza ashira and non-chametz foods.|
|Preparing for the seder on Friday||Ideally, one should prepare the lettuce and shankbone, and grind the ingredients needed for the charoset on Friday. So too, one should light a yahtzeit candle for Yom Tov, and set the Shabbat clock for the seder night.|
|Terumot and ma'asrot||One should remember to set aside terumot and ma'asrot before Shabbat. One should also not forget to fulfill the mitzva of bi'ur ma'asrot.|
|Shabbat prayers||We get up early on Shabbat and do not draw out the synagogue service (though it should not be rushed). For the haftara, we read "Ve'orva," and those who follow the customs of the Vilna Gaon read the regular haftara for the weekly parasha.|
We eat food that is kosher for Pesach and that was cooked in Pesach utensils. It is recommended to use disposable baking pans (for pots cannot be washed on Shabbat). If disposable dishes are being used, then one may prepare chametz in disposable tins, though special care is needed when heating up the food so as not to render the hotplate unfit for Pesach use.
Kitniyot may be eaten Friday night and Shabbat morning – preferably on disposable dishes.
As for lechem mishne – one should choose one of the following two options:
|Eating chametz on Shabbat||All the chametz that will be eaten on Shabbat should be kept in one place and eaten carefully. It is recommended to leave only a small amount of bread, of a type that does not make crumbs, e.g., pitas.|
|Leftover chametz and bittul chametz||
One should finish eating chametz by the end of the fourth hour. We are generally accustomed to finish the meal by that time, but if someone wishes to finish eating chametz but continue the meal, he has whom to rely upon.
Before the end of the fifth hour, the remaining chametz should be crumbled and thrown into the toilet or doused with soap. If a person is left with a considerable amount of chametz, he may remove it from his house and declare it ownerless, or else he may douse it with soap.
One should carefully shake out one's clothing, rinse one's mouth, and sweep the floor. It is preferable that the broom be put aside with the chametz utensils.
Bittul chametz should be performed before the end of the fifth hour.
On an ordinary Shabbat, se'uda shelishit should preferably include bread and be eaten after the time of mincha (half an hour after midday). When Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, these two requirements are incompatible, and therefore one should choose one of the following three options:
|Mincha||It is preferable to recite the mincha service before eating se'uda shelishit.|
|Preparations for the seder on Shabbat||One may not prepare for the seder on Shabbat, except for tidying up that is beneficial for Shabbat itself. One may not warm up food for the seder on Shabbat. One is, however, permitted to sleep on Shabbat, so as to be more alert during the seder.|
|Arvit service on Yom Tov||We add "vatodi'einu. Vihi no'am and ve'ata kadosh are not recited. It is customary not to start arvit early, so as not to accept Yom Tov, while it is still Shabbat.|
|Candle lighting||The Yom Tov candles should be lit only after reciting "Barukh ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-kodesh," or alternatively, "vatodi'einu" in the arvit service. The person who lights should recite the "shehecheyanu" blessing at the time of lighting, and skip it in the kiddush recited over the first cup of wine.|
|Kiddush||Yaknehaz ("bore peri ha-gafen," "asher bachar banu," "bore me'orei ha-eish," "ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-chol… Barukh ata ha-Shem ha-mavdil bein kodesh le-kodesh," "shehecheyanu."|
|"Asher ga'alanu" berakha||Many people are accustomed to change the order and say "And we shall partake there of the Pesach offerings and the sacrifices."|
 The Arukh ha-Shulchan (430:5) writes that since in any case the derasha does not usually deal with issues of practical Halakha, and anyone who has a question turns to a rabbi, the derasha should be given as usual on the Shabbat immediately preceding the night of the seder. The other Acharonim disagree. They argue that, on the contrary, the Shabbat ha-Gadol should always deal with the laws of Pesach, and especially when Erev Pesach falls out on Shabbat, and the pertinent laws are not so well known.
 Since we do not eat the shankbone at the seder, it may not be roasted on Yom Tov. Therefore, if a person forgot to roast the shankbone before Shabbat, he may do so on Yom Tov, provided that he eats it the next day.
 The Acharonim discuss the law applying to a person who forgot to set aside challa from the bread that he wishes to eat on Erev Pesach that falls out on Shabbat, for one cannot eat the bread and leave over a small portion from which he will set aside challa the next day. A number of solutions have been suggested. It is generally accepted not to eat the chametz, but rather to crumble it or make it inedible or the like (see Magen Avraham 506, no. 8; Be'er Heitev 444, no. 1, and Sha'arei Teshuva, ad loc.; Birkei Yosef 323, 3; Kaf ha-Chayyim 427, no. 15). Some have suggested giving a small portion of it to a child over the age of 12, but not yet bar mitzva, who will then set it aside as challa on the rest. This solution is not so simple (the solution: Maharil Diskin; see also Responsa Har Tzvi, Orach Chayyim, II, no. 1; Responsa Minchat Yitzchak, VII, no. 28; Erev Pesach she-Chal be-Shabbat – Rav Tzvi Cohen, pp. 78-79). Outside of Israel there is less of a problem, for there one is permitted to eat the bread and leave over a small portion from which challa will be set aside. (According to the Magen Avraham [506, no. 8], however, the problem remains what to do with the challa that is set aside. In practice, if a person has no other challot, he may be lenient and give the challa to a kohen who had immersed in a mikve, or to a child under the age of 9 – Mishna Berura 506, no. 23.)
 According to the Vilna Gaon, the haftara of "Ve'orva" is intended to serve as a reminder to perform bi'ur ma'asrot before Pesach. Since, however, once cannot perform bi'ur ma'asrot on Shabbat, there is no reason to read this haftara. The Arukh ha-Shulchan notes that the custom in his community is that of the Vilna Gaon. See also the book, Erev Pesach she-Chal be-Shabbat, chap. 16, note 8.
Translated by David Strauss