• Rav Zev Jacobson
DAF 5a-b
A. Akh chilek [line 9]  The gemara [daf 4b] quoted the verse [Shemot 12:15]: "But [akh] on the first day shall you put away leaven from your houses."  According to Abbaye, this refers to the command to dispose of one's chametz on the 14th.  However, one is permitted to retain chametz until noon.  This is learnt from the word "akh" which is used in the Torah to limit the scope of the subsequent command.  The most logical way to divide the day of the 14th is to permit chametz for half the day and prohibit it for half the day.
B.  Rashi s.v. Akh Chilek [4th line of the Rashi]  The gemara [Shabbat 104a] discusses different ways of ordering the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.  One option is to connect the first letter [Aleph] with the last letter [Taf]; the second letter [Bet] with the penultimate letter [SHin] and so on for  the remaining letters.  This is termed by the acronym "A-T Ba-SH" and is sometimes utilized to present an added dimension to a word by interchanging the relevant letters.  A second option is to group every 7th letter so that Aleph, Chet and Samech form the first group; Bet, Tet and Ayin - the second; Gimmel, Yud and Pei - the third; Daled, Kaf and Tzadi - the fourth and so on.  Each letter is interchangable with either of the letters in its group.  Thus, the word "akh" comprising of the letters Aleph and Khaf, can be changed into the word Chetz [Aleph changes to Chet; Khaf changes to Tzadi] which relates to the word "Chetzi" meaning "half."  This is an alternate explanation why chametz is prohibited for only half the day on the 14th.
Note: The Massoret Ha-shas [on the inside column of the page] refers one to other places in the Talmud where the same discussion, statement or law is recorded.
C.  R. Nachman bar Yitzchak amar [lines 12-13]  According to R. Nachman bar Yitzchak, the word "rishon" can also be translated as "preceding."  Thus, the verse "Akh ba-yom ha-rishon..." would be rendered as "But on the preceding day [i.e., the 14th] shall you put away leaven from your houses."
D.  Ha-rishon lama li [line 26]  The Torah specifies [by using the definitive "hey"] that one is required to refrain from work only on the 1st and 8th day of Sukkot; but not on the days of Chol Ha-mo'ed.  Tosafot [s.v. Le-mi'utei] note, that the term "ha-rishon" as used with regards to the mitzva of the arba minim [4 species] limits the obligation to fulfill this mitzva to the first day of Sukkot.  [Note: There is a rabbinic requirement to take the lulav and etrog on the remaining days of Sukkot.]  However, one who is at the Temple is required to fulfill this mitzva on all seven days of Sukkot.
E.  R. Akiva omer [lines 49-51]  According to R. Akiva one must dispose of his chametz by burning it.  Since it is forbidden to do so on the first day of Pesach [Yom Tov] it is clear that the Torah commands us to destroy our chametz on the 14th.  R. Akiva uses logic to prove that chametz is forbidden on the 14th as opposed to previous opinions who attempt to learn this directly from the verse in the Torah.
DAF 5b
F.  Shema mina mi-de-Rabbi Akiva telat [lines 1-5]  Three details can be derived from the statement of R. Akiva:
1. One can fulfill the command to dispose of chametz only by burning it as opposed to any other method.  [This is an argument between R. Yehuda and the Chakhamim on daf 21a.]  If R. Akiva concurred with the Chakhamim then it would be possible to dispose of chametz on Yom Tov itself without performing any forbidden actions.
2. The Torah singled out the prohibition of lighting a fire on Shabbat [Shemot 35:3] to teach us the following: If one performs a single action on Shabbat that involves transgression of multiple melakhot [forbidden actions] he is liable for each melakha individually.  Therefore, if the action was performed inadvertently [be-shogeg] he would be liable to bring a korban chatat [sin offering] for every melakha he had transgressed as opposed to a single korban chatat for the act of breaking Shabbat.  This is in accordance with the opinion of R. Natan [Shabbat 70a] "le-chalek yatzta."
            The Chakhamim, however, disagree and posit that the Torah singled out the prohibition of kindling a fire to teach us that it does not have the same status as the other melakhot and is punishable by lashes as opposed to stoning ["le-lav yatzta].  If R. Akiva concurred with the Chakhamim, he would not have termed kindling as an av melakha [one of the 39 melakhot of equal status].
3. One may not kindle a flame on Yom Tov for any purpose other than cooking.  This is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai [Beitza 12a].  According to Beit Hillel, however, although one may not kindle a flame, one can ignite flammable materials from an existing flame even if one does not intend to use the resultant fire for cooking.  If R. Akiva concurred with Beit Hillel, then one could dispose of one's chametz on Yom Tov itself, making use of an existing flame.  It would, therefore, not be self-evident that the obligation to dispose of chametz applied to the 14th.
G.  Yakhol yatmin [line 10]  The Torah states that you may not SEE chametz.  One may have interpreted the verse according to its most literal meaning, reaching the conclusion that it is permitted to hide one's chametz on Pesach.
H.  Kelapei laya [line 34]  This is an expression of astonishment that a certain line of reasoning should be exactly the opposite [lit. Towards the tail!].
I.  Ha de-kabil alei achrayut [line 44]  If a Jew accepts responsibility for the chametz entrusted to him it is considered his and he must dispose of it before Pesach.