Laws of Kiddush Part 3
THE LAWS OF SHABBAT
By Rav Doniel Schreiber
Shiur #09: Laws of Kiddush - Part 3
12. Kiddush on Shabbat Day
A. Kiddusha Rabba
Since kiddush on Shabbat day is a rabbinic obligation and not a Torah obligation, it is euphemistically referred to as "kiddusha rabba" (the great kiddush) (OC 289:1 and MB 289:3; however, Magen Avraham OC 597:3 understands that, according to the Maharam, kiddush on Shabbat day is also a Torah obligation; Mishna Berura ibid. in Sha'arei Tziyun note 7 disputes the Magen Avraham's understanding of the Maharam).
B. The Blessing and Introductory Verses
The formula for this kiddush is the blessing of "borei peri ha-gafen." Nonetheless, many have the custom to add the verses "ve-shamru benei Yisrael et ha-shabbat" (Shemot 31:16-17) and "zakhor et yom ha-shabbat lekadsho" (Shemot 28:11) prior to "borei peri ha-gafen." Poskim differ as to whether one must begin this addition with the opening verses, i.e., "zakhor et yom ...," or if one may start reciting from the words "al kein beirakh ..." This is because "al kein" begins in the middle of a pasuk and one may not divide any verse that Moshe Rabeinu did not divide (Megilla 22a, Chatam Sofer, OC Responsum 10, and MB 289:2). The Arukh Ha-shulchan (OC 289:3) supports the practice of reciting "al kein beirakh" alone by asserting that in doing this one is only introducing the kiddush and not reformatting the Torah. See also SSK vol. 2, 47:30, notes 147-149).
C. Fulfilling Kiddusha Rabba by Listening to the Mekadesh
It is generally accepted that one fulfills the obligation of kiddusha rabba by listening to the recitation of "borei peri ha-gafen" (Rema OC 273:4). This is accomplished through the principle of "shomei'a ke-oneh" (listening is as reciting - see previous shiur). However, some poskim rule that to fulfill Shabbat morning kiddush all those who hear kiddush are required to taste the wine. This is because the essence of kiddusha rabba is the birkat ha-nehenin (blessing before enjoyment) of borei peri ha-gafen and, if one does not benefit from the wine, how can the praise be considered valid? (See Sefer Mo'adim U-zemanin, vol. 3, p. 107, and vol. 8, p. 63, no. 243 in the name of R. Chaim Brisker zt"l and the Griz zt"l, R. Velvel Soloveitchik).
The Netziv justifies the accepted custom of fulfilling kiddusha rabba by "shomei'a ke-oneh" (Ha-amek She'eila, She'ilta 54, Ha'Amek She'eila, ot 4). He explains that although the mitzva is to drink the wine, Chazal defined the mitzva as honoring Shabbat through the head of the household drinking the wine. In this way, everyone who hears the berakha fulfills their obligation. R. Moshe Shternbuch (Mo'adim U-zemanim, vol. 8 ibid.) explains that the Netziv meant that by hearing the blessing one is considered to have partaken in the praise over the cup of wine.
D. The Proper Time for Kiddusha Rabba
Why do we not recite kiddush upon arising Shabbat morning? As on any other day of the week, it is forbidden to eat or drink before attending to our first priority - beseeching God. Halakha deems it inappropriate to pursue one's own physical desires prior to tending to one's responsibilities to God. This is all the more true for prayer which intends to demonstrate both our acceptance of the yoke of Heaven and our recognition that we depend upon God for our well-being. Indulging ourselves prior to prayer is thus viewed as incompatible with prayer's central themes (OC 89:3 and MB 89:21). It is for this reason that on Shabbat day we recite kiddush only after morning prayers, and not upon arising.
However, one is permitted to drink very simple beverages, such as water, before davening (OC 89:3). The Mishna Berura (89:22) adds that one may also drink tea or coffee without milk or sugar. He concedes, however, that people are customarily lenient with regard to adding sugar. The Arukh Ha-shulchan (OC 89:23) allows coffee and tea with sugar, but not with milk. He concedes, however, that people are customarily lenient with regard to adding milk as it is merely added to temper and add taste to the coffee. Indeed, it is attested that Rav Moshe Feinstein zt"l used to drink coffee with milk prior to morning prayers (Radiance of Shabbat, p. 99, note 11; see Yabia Omer, vol. 4, no. 11 and 12). Since these beverages are not tantamount to eating a meal, they do not generate an obligation to recite kiddush on Shabbat morning.
However, if one is ill or weak or very hungry or thirsty so that one cannot maintain proper attention (kavana) to prayers, one may eat before morning prayers (OC 89: 3,4, MB ibid., and Arukh Ha-shulchan 89:24,25). The Biur Halakha rules that if this is the case, then on Shabbat morning, since one is allowed to eat, one is obligated to recite kiddush before eating (Bi'ur Halakha 289, s.v. Chovat, and SSK vol. 1, 40:45). Rav Moshe Feinstein zt"l (Igrot Moshe OC. vol. 2, no. 28) questions this ruling; perhaps Chazal legislated kiddusha rabba only at a time when people normally eat, i.e., after morning prayers. Nonetheless, he agrees that one should follow the above ruling of the Bi'ur Halakha.
Rav Moshe Feinstein zt"l (Igrot Moshe OC vol. 2, no. 26) rules in a response found elsewhere that one should follow the ruling of the Bi'ur Halakha only if one needs to eat a true meal, such as a piece of bread the size of an olive or a meal (the size of three to four eggs) of pat ha-ba be-kisnin (mezonot-like bread from the five species of grain - wheat, barley, oats, spelt, or rye), such as cake, cookies, danishes, or pretzels. (One would have to wash one's hands, recite the blessing "al netilat yadayim," and "ha-motzi" prior to eating this meal, and recite birkat ha-mazon afterwards. The laws of pat ha-ba be-kisnin are beyond the scope of this shiur.) One is required to recite kiddush, since in this instance one will be eating a true meal prior to morning prayers,.
However, writes Rav Moshe, if one will be eating cooked mezonot (i.e., grain meals dissimilar to bread, such as some grain cereals, doughnuts deep fried in oil or pasta boiled in water) which cannot have the status of bread, and therefore cannot be considered a true meal, one is not required to recite kiddush (see Eliyahu Rabba cited in MB 286:9). It is even forbidden to recite kiddush; if there is no obligation to recite kiddush, drinking wine before morning prayers is deemed inappropriate.
Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt"l (cited in SSK vol. 1, 40:45, note 93) gives an even narrower definition for the obligation to recite kiddush prior to morning prayers. He asserts that one must be compelled to eat a meal which will obligate the recitation afterwards of birkat ha-mazon or "al ha-michya." Such blessings are only recited when a piece of bread the size of an olive or mezonot are eaten "tokh kedei akhilat pras," i.e., within two to nine minutes. Since even those who are sick are not compelled to eat at this speed, an objective obligatory meal does not exist, and thus no obligation to recite kiddush. Therefore, one may not recite kiddush in this situation prior to the morning prayers.
After completing the shacharit service on Shabbat morning, one becomes obligated in kiddush, even though one has not yet recited the musaf prayers. (However, see Prisha OC 89:6.) Once this obligation starts, it is prohibited to drink even water unless one is sick or very weak. Yet, even if one does say kiddush after shacharit prior to musaf, one can only eat up to a ke-beitza (a egg's size worth) of bread or mezonot which is the measurement for a full meal. This is because one is prohibited from partaking in a full meal prior to reciting musaf unless one is weak (OC 286:3, and MB ibid. 7-9).
E. The Measurement of a Revi'it
Even for Shabbat morning kiddush, the kiddush cup must be filled with a revi'it. However, Rav Moshe Feinstein zt"l rules that since this kiddush is only a rabbinic obligation, the measurement for a revi'it is less than that of the Torah obligated kiddush Friday night (see also Bi'ur Halakha 271:13 in the middle of s.v. Shel revi'it). According to his opinion a revi'it for kiddush on Shabbat day is only 3.3 fl ounces; others say it is only 3 fl ounces. One must drink a melo lugmav, which a bit more than half of a revi'it, for Shabbat morning kiddush. According to Rav Moshe Feinstein zt"l this amounts to 1.7 fluid ounces.
F. Wine and Chamar Medina
If one has both wine and chamar medina, it is best to recite Shabbat morning kiddush on wine; one who prefers chamar medina can use it for kiddush. When using chamar medina, some say that one must have a revi'it in the cup and one must drink a melo lugmav (Magen Avraham OC 190:4). Whereas others say that with liquor, a shotglass is enough, and one is only required to drink a little (Taz OC 210:1). The Mishna Berura (190:14) rules in accordance with the Magen Avraham - that one must drink a melo lugmav - whereas the Chatam Sofer (OC Responsum 49) supports the view of the Taz that even drinking a little of the shotglass is enough.